Indicators on tiger mom You Should Know



For me? I'm all for encouraging excellence in our youngsters, but I default to constructive reinforcement and parenting In line with my daughter's persona and needs, not making her Reside around strictly my

Tiger dad and mom perceive a slim definition of accomplishment that is definitely rooted only in a large volume of educational and mental accomplishment. As academic achievement is often a supply of pride for people and within just Chinese and East Asian Modern society at huge, tiger mothers and fathers usually view "results" as graduating from a best College which include Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Oxford, and McGill is the last word marker of Status, superior socioeconomic position, promising marriage prospective clients, and also a extremely respectable lucrative white vocation route like getting a high-end neurosurgeon for Mayo Clinic, a large driven lawyer at a leading law Wall Avenue regulation company, a software program engineer in Silicon Valley, a management expert for Boston Consulting Group, or as an expenditure banker Functioning for Goldman Sachs.

That wasn’t my expertise. I saw exactly the same emphasis on exceptionalism and achievement amongst my other, non-Asian close friends, and wasn’t really purchasing the idea that parents from the Far East had a lock over the method of getting one of the most out in their Little ones.

MSNBC stated which the article "reads alternately just like a how-to manual, a satire or maybe a lament".[12] MSNBC's crucial reaction goes on to point out that "the article sounds so unbelievable to Western audience—and many Asian ones, way too—that many people assumed the whole issue was satire.

"From the twenty first century -- with kids tweeting and Facebooking almost everything -- they count on for being heard," Taffel states, incorporating that you're way too rigorous if you don’t give your Youngsters an opportunity daily to state their viewpoint.

Function by Eva Pomerantz indicates that Chinese mothers Believe, “My child is my report card,” and they see the educational success of their young children being a Main parenting intention. The reasons why a certain variety of parenting performs in a single cultural team may not translate to a different cultural group, partly for the reason that parenting ambitions are unique in various groups.

Kim didn't feel that any of such descriptions very matched what she experienced professional expanding up. “Every time Students Look at European-American and Asian-American family members,” she mentioned, moms and dads One of the latter “almost always score larger on managing and reduce on heat, which suggests they’re much more more likely to be this page classified as authoritarian.

; that is, we want details with time making sure that we can see how differing kinds of parenting affect a Kid's progress with time. If we have only information from a person time point, then we are unable to say no matter if parenting is bringing about little one outcomes or perhaps different types of kids influence how their mom and dad behave. The good thing is, we had a longitudinal examine we could use to deal with these queries.

Since the majority of the book is penned in this type of deadpan way I know there will be a great deal of misunderstandings.

'Superiority is the one particular narrative that The us has relentlessly denied or ground out of its black inhabitants.'

Mother and father who setup rules that overstep common parental boundaries are considered possibly tiger mothers or (considerably less frequently) tiger fathers. Tiger moms and dads prioritize schoolwork higher than all else and only allow for kids to take part in functions so that you can most likely gain awards[28][29] which they imagine will boost the possibility of the child's acceptance to the best colleges. It is said that a fantastic read "Asian American mothers and fathers provide a constant wind beneath their kid's wings";[thirty] that means tiger dad and mom constantly propel their kids towards their dedication in the direction of excellence.

In a similar way, Chinese tiger mothers and fathers pay out extra interest to students Main tutorial topics which include math, science, and language arts and dismiss other non-tutorial routines such artwork and sports so as to assure their kid's top-quality effectiveness within their core academic topics.[31]

makes an attempt to have to The underside of your stereotype of Asian-American tutorial prowess. Are tiger mothers — so-termed for his or her hyper-disciplining parenting as well as their laser-like give attention to accomplishment and performance — to thank?

News Corp is usually a network of foremost businesses during the worlds of diversified media, information, instruction, and knowledge providers

tiger mom - An Overview



Tiger mother and father perceive a slender definition of good results which is rooted solely inside of a large amount of educational and mental achievement. As academic achievements is commonly a source of delight for family members and in Chinese and East Asian society at large, tiger mother and father typically perspective "good results" as graduating from a leading College such as Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Oxford, and McGill is the last word marker of Status, substantial socioeconomic status, promising marriage prospective customers, plus a highly respectable lucrative white vocation path including starting to be a high end neurosurgeon for Mayo Clinic, a substantial run law firm at a top regulation Wall Street regulation organization, a software package engineer in Silicon Valley, a management guide for Boston Consulting Group, or being an investment decision banker Doing work for Goldman Sachs.

[35] In Chua's memoir, Battle Hymn with the Tiger Mother, she mentions an incident that she yelled at her daughters, contacting them ‘garbage’ in public.[28] It has been demonstrated that tiger dad and mom are less likely than other mothers and fathers to go with their little ones in public in addition.[32] Young children raised by tiger mothers and fathers may be met with emotional threats and minimal-impression Actual physical punishments when they didn't exercise their piano scales and fulfill their her anticipations.[36] Also, some tiger parents do not allow their children to generate some decisions by themselves, whether in academia or way of life. By way of example, Chua's daughters weren't permitted to watch TV during the night time or have sleepovers with their schoolmates.[28]

(Bloomsbury Publishing) And rather than “speedy gratification” — help you save that for that weak — The united states’s most prosperous groups are intensely disciplined and established, and don’t give into fleeting impulse.

three) Impulse Control: Chau thinks that perseverance and endurance are virtues which have been shed to most People - but still exist among her eight golden cultural groups.

But this week, she's drawing attention to her personal lifestyle using a provocative new memoir about parenting her two daughters, Sophia and Lulu, now 18 and 14. Battle Hymn of your Tiger Mother

About thirty% of the examine sample had an profits at or earlier mentioned the median earnings of Asian People in the U.S. The examine statistically controlled for parental instructional degree.

" Numerous people raise their small children in this manner. It really is not only Chinese men and women. It can be genuinely an immigrant detail. I realize Indians and people from Nigeria and Ghana and Jamaica. Even some Irish. I didn't write this book to promote the Chinese design. It truly weblink is just as much about issues as it truly is about successes.

The book, they felt, experienced lodged while in the tradition specified stereotypes about an Asian parenting style which was not well-examined or very well-understood and certainly not all set to be held up as some kind of model.

But Chua needs just as much of herself as she does of her daughters. As well as in her sacrifices-the exacting notice invested researching her daughters' performances, the Workplace hours misplaced shuttling the girls to classes-the depth of her enjoy for her kids gets to be very clear. Fight Hymn from the Tiger Mother

Element of the book is about questioning why I could not do what my mother and father were being in the position to do. Component of it is they had an authenticity. They were being immigrants. They arrived and they had been really weak.

A lot in the book is about my determination to retreat with the rigorous 'Chinese' method, right after my younger daughter rebelled at thirteen".[eight]

Tiger moms and dads eschew the lax parenting fashion normally exhibited by numerous liberal Western mothers and fathers but in addition disregard other tender expertise that are just are as important for their kid's long term career prospective customers and The shortage of such abilities may perhaps set them in a disadvantage when competing for work positions. Tiger moms and dads may impose alternatives on their own little ones concerning which pursuits they choose to pursue. Critics from the tiger parenting argue this strategy will restrict their kid's capability to discover their specific talents and passions thus denying the child a way of belonging, self-esteem, and intent. Alternatively, proponents for tiger parenting argue that their parenting system imbues children with self-Handle, self-regulation and self-self-control and will not make fantastic educational success when they Enable their youngster to drift freely to develop their particular passions.[forty Get More Info one] Chinese Confucian philosophy has typically emphasized self-advancement. Consequently, tiger moms and dads often Ensure that their little ones do the job conscientiously on their own schoolwork to help safe superior grades and an Total outstanding educational overall performance.[forty two]

"You don’t stimulate a little something, but In addition, you don’t forbid it," Shorter claims. "Say, ‘I'd instead you didn’t make this happen for these factors. But when you select to make it happen in any case, I'll hold a closer look at on you as a result of my worries.’"

On January seventeen, 2011, an open letter from Chua's more mature daughter, Sophia Chua-Rubenfeld, to her mother was posted inside the Big apple Publish.[26] Sophia's letter defends her moms and dads' baby-rearing strategies and states that she and her sister were not oppressed by an "evil mother".

The best Side of tiger mom book



..[but] elements of her essay resonated profoundly with many people, In particular Chinese People—not automatically in a great way". While in the Monetary Times, Isabel Berwick called the "tiger mother" method of parenting "the precise opposite of every thing that the Western liberal retains pricey".[13]

. She took pains to indicate which the book was tongue-in-cheek, but it still got A lot focus for her protection of the demanding parenting type that she traced to her Chinese roots.

Chua cites her parent's newfound immigration working experience in The us and underwent an intense struggle to established their roots in a overseas land, which inevitably prompted them to adopt a more utilitarian technique toward raising their little ones. In her memoir, Chua brings up Confucius to elucidate why Chinese mother and father feel that their young children are indebted to them due to the many sacrifices the preceding parental generation made to secure an improved existence for their kids.[37][38] Tiger parents implement significant anticipations and should harbor snobbish and inflated views about their youngsters’s educational functionality. Sometimes these anticipations could possibly be held unrealistically substantial whatever the child's capacity or passion for finding out.[39] Tiger dad and mom may exhibit severe and unrealistic expectations for the kid's educational overall performance where by "B" and also mid to low close "A" grades usually are not tolerated.[forty] Tiger parents put a heavy emphasis around the pursuit of tutorial results in the cost of other character qualities that are only as very important for upcoming profession achievement which include smooth capabilities, social capabilities, dealing with men and women, and emotional intelligence.

Keep on reading through the leading story I’m utilizing the time period “Chinese mother” loosely. I not too long ago achieved a supersuccessful white dude from South Dakota (you’ve seen him on television), and soon after comparing notes we made the decision that his Functioning-class father experienced definitely been a Chinese mother.

"She usually takes fantastic aspects to the extreme," claims Lisa. "I concur with location significant expectations in your Young children, not overindulging them and believing in them, but creating Children observe piano for 4 moreover hours straight with no food items or rest room breaks? No way," she says. "Rejecting a hand-created card from your child mainly because it's not adequate? That's just necessarily mean. Children will need free of charge, unstructured time for you to daydream and pursue their very own hobbies.

[forty four] Tiger mothers also integrate classical tunes coaching or extracurricular enrichment functions like signing up for a sporting activities team, including Those people with competitive constructions and awards systems to bolster their Kid's university entrance application.[forty five] This type of early existence schooling illustrates the tiger guardian's zeal for schooling and the will for their young children to enter into a prestigious university as tiger mothers and fathers see the entrance right into a top rated tier greater academic institution being a ticket that contributes to a prestigious, fulfilling, and lucrative white collar job filled with socioeconomic achievements.[forty six] Tiger mom and dad may perhaps seem down on Occupations beneath their anticipations - That could be a truck driver may be viewed as considerably less socially respectable than a neurosurgeon.[forty seven]

Any group that collectively thinks These are inherently a lot better than some other, say the authors, has a benefit. They don't Be aware that this is maybe humanity’s oldest and ugliest flaw, The underside-line reason behind wars and genocide. Inside their estimation, it’s not approximately popular plenty of in the united states, in which “the Superiority Sophisticated .

Tiger mothers and fathers frequently set youngsters in tutorial courses as early because the preschool phase. Normally, through the entire Kid's tutorial vocation, the mother's makes an attempt to help the child get hold of superb results in exams to protected a seat in prestigious educational institutions, With all the close objective of coming into a top-notch College in your mind.

According to some resources, little ones raised beneath an rigorous, managing, and punitive tiger mother will endure a Long-term social and psychological toll. This integrated some youthful Asians together with children from immigrant family members of Asian ancestry who live in other areas of the earth outside Asia. Children elevated that has a less supportive kind of parenting have created Persistent psychological overall health and news psychiatric issues which include panic, low self-esteem, despair, and contemplation of suicide.

Chua’s 2011 memoir infuriated some mom and dad, who assumed the author’s disciplinary parenting techniques weren’t only ineffective, but abusive and cruel.

A good deal of people ponder how Chinese parents elevate these types of stereotypically profitable Young children. They surprise what these dad and mom do to produce countless math whizzes and tunes prodigies, what It can be like inside the household, and whether they could get it done as well.

Chua produced waves with “Battle Hymn on the Tiger Mother,” but she makes even more outrageous claims in her new book. Chua wrote about calling considered one of her two daughters “garbage” for becoming impolite, dismissing a do-it-yourself birthday card as subpar (“I don’t want this — I want Yet another a single”), refusing to Allow her girls look at Television set or engage in college performs or have sleepovers, of threatening to present away a beloved dollhouse if her daughter couldn’t learn a complicated classical composition in just days.

attempts to acquire to The underside of your stereotype of Asian-American educational prowess. Are tiger mothers — so-identified as for his or her hyper-disciplining parenting as well as their laser-like give attention to achievement and general performance — to thank?

Chua's memoir may have been additional nuanced and self-satirising than some critics prompt, though the firestorm it prompted was totally predictable. It began with a list of child-rearing edicts, including the undeniable fact that the couple's daughters, Sophia and Lulu, ended up never allowed to go to a sleepover, get any grade under an A, are unsuccessful to come initially in any class except gymnasium and drama, and needed to Engage in the piano or violin.

The best Side of tiger mom



What's the psychological state of mind that makes some people overcome some of these road blocks, and what can we master from them? And activism is unquestionably Portion of it. But, you know, I assume we're taking a look at one other 50 percent of it likewise.

Inspite of our squeamishness about cultural stereotypes, there are actually lots of research available showing marked and quantifiable discrepancies in between Chinese and Westerners when it comes to parenting. In a single analyze of fifty Western American mothers and 48 Chinese immigrant mothers, Virtually 70% on the Western mothers claimed both that “stressing academic accomplishment is not superior for children” or that “mother and father ought to foster the concept that Studying is fun.” In contrast, around 0% with the Chinese mothers felt precisely the same way.

He felt very poor for his spouse once the memoir was printed, "simply because she was getting dragged through countless preposterous accusations, and other people failed to realize – mainly because, partially, she left this away from her book – the amount her Young ones adore her. They did not understand how A lot she enjoys her Young ones.

Ex-Dolphins cheerleader claims she was mocked in excess of virginity Gals have additional stamina than Males, study says Guy statements he dropped twenty lbs on the 'Chipotle diet program' Lawsuit alleges Michigan stole blood of newborn toddlers Examine reveals sobering information on simply how much you need to be drinking Instagram product destroys eyes in beauty operation gone Mistaken How a stolen Chagall painting was recovered after thirty years These disabled dogs will melt your heart Are dietary supplements giving you most cancers?

But this 7 days, she's drawing focus to her personal daily life that has a provocative new memoir about parenting her two daughters, Sophia and Lulu, now 18 and 14. Fight Hymn on the Tiger Mother

The member of the household who seems to treatment most concerning the backlash is Chua; understandably, given that she was the key target, but remarkably, provided her picture.

The phrase and behavior with the "Tiger Mother" is satirized in the web anthropomorphic animal comedian strip sequence Kevin and Kell[27] While using the recurring figures Mei-Li Lee and her elevating methods along with her daughter Lin together with in Frame of mind, even though it's been observed that she's not essentially a tigress but a tabby cat who "willed" (assimilated) herself into getting a tiger via sheer see it here effort, which is married to your tiger.[28][29]

His suspicion isn't really surprising. "Jed's so considerably more practical and prudent," states Chua. "I held declaring: 'I don't Believe this book will be controversial, as it has a lot of scientific tests in it …' But Jed reported: 'Amy, it is going to be controversial!'"

Amy Chua's account of her stringent parenting triggered uproar. As her most recent book promises to become useful reference equally as controversial, she and her spouse defend their beliefs

These characterizations might be blended through a statistical process generally known as latent profile Evaluation to ascertain Kim’s four parenting profiles: All those scoring maximum over the optimistic Proportions ended up labeled “supportive;” All those scoring minimal on the two dimensions were being deemed “easygoing;” “harsh” parents had been significant on destructive attributes and small on good types, and “tiger” parents scored superior on the two beneficial and destructive Proportions.

Profile: Her hard prescription for 'Chinese' kid rearing built for the controversial bestseller. She appears established to repeat the trick in a fresh book that seeks to elucidate why some 'cultural teams' are way more potent than Other people

But I stayed out from the brouhaha when Amy Chua roared in regards to the Tiger Mother, confidently defending her strict and, to some, draconian parenting ways to keep her Children on track to turning into all they might be. Perhaps it hit way too near home — there was a great deal that was familiar in how she “encouraged” her Little ones to observe their musical devices for hrs right until they acquired it right.

That leaves the do the job ethic, which Hsin and Xie identified accounted for nearly most of the grade hole amongst Asian-American and white students. And which was driven by two factors, both equally of that have a lot more to perform with social and cultural factors than racial kinds. Amongst the over 5200 Asian-American and white students from two significant datasets get more info that adopted them from kindergarten into highschool, Asian-American pupils were being capable of benefit from social assist programs that assisted to translate their energy into achievements.

Tiger moms and dads try out to strengthen better concentrations psychological Manage above their kids than other mom and dad. Tempering a Kid's self-esteem could possibly be element of this strategy. Advocates of tiger parenting criticize the Western parenting techniques for coddling their children with overindulgence of leisure time when that further off-time could have been much better used be accomplishing further math issues or practising piano scales.[34] Proponents of reinforcing psychological Command consider these mothers and fathers as worthwhile their children with reduced expectations and deteriorating tutorial expectations eventually leading them into a lifetime of mediocrity and underachievement.

Detailed Notes on tiger mom



Chua has openly confronted criticism in print and during her book signings.[22] In a follow-up report from the Wall Street Journal, Chua describes that "my precise book will not be a how-to tutorial; it is a memoir, the story of our loved ones's journey in two cultures, and my own eventual transformation for a mother.

My Young ones Feel the Tale is hysterical. My spouse had overlooked my birthday and within the last second experienced put jointly a thing at an exceptionally mediocre Italian cafe after which he explained, "Women, we Every have a little shock for Mommy, right?" Lulu's surprise turned out to get a piece of paper folded in 50 percent, that experienced a happy confront to the front and reported, Happy Birthday Mommy.

Chua cites her dad or mum's newfound immigration practical experience in The usa and underwent an extreme struggle to set their roots within a overseas land, which inevitably prompted them to undertake a far more utilitarian strategy towards elevating their young children. In her memoir, Chua brings up Confucius to elucidate why Chinese moms and dads think that their youngsters are indebted to them resulting from every one of the sacrifices the preceding parental generation manufactured to protected an even better existence for his or her kids.[37][38] Tiger mom and dad enforce superior expectations and should harbor snobbish and inflated views with regards to their children’s academic efficiency. Occasionally these anticipations can be held unrealistically substantial regardless of the Kid's capacity or enthusiasm for researching.[39] Tiger dad and mom may possibly show harsh and unrealistic expectations for the child's tutorial overall performance in which "B" and also mid to reduced close "A" grades are not tolerated.[forty] Tiger mom and dad set a hefty emphasis on the pursuit of tutorial accomplishment in the price of other character traits that are merely as vital for future profession achievements for example delicate expertise, social expertise, addressing people today, and psychological intelligence.

Tiger mom and dad check out to bolster higher stages psychological Handle above their children than other mothers and fathers. Tempering a child's self-esteem could be part of this approach. Advocates of tiger parenting criticize the Western parenting techniques for coddling their youngsters with overindulgence of leisure time when that more off-time might have been far better invested be carrying out further math challenges or working towards piano scales.[34] Proponents of reinforcing psychological control take into consideration these parents as rewarding their kids with small expectations and deteriorating educational criteria in the end top them to your lifetime of mediocrity and underachievement.

And the actual sort of accomplishment, I feel, is the ability to go after achievements as you outline it, which includes achievement described by service to Some others.

Incest dad kills child boy he had together with his individual DAUGHTER ahead of murdering her, her adoptive father And eventually turning the gun on himself in killing spree across a few states soon after she ended affair 'I'm generally Operating time beyond regulation - it tends to make us despise our occupation': 911 operator, who failed to act on frantic call of boy, sixteen, as he was crushed to Loss of life by the folding seat of his minivan, had complained about her position days before The Trump tapes: White House fears the FBI seized audio information of phone discussions concerning the President and his private attorney Michael Cohen in Business raid Meghan Markle arrives at Chicago airport incognito 1 thirty day period in advance of her marriage to Prince Harry to finalize her United kingdom visa Revealed: Hair fibers in her getaway motor vehicle, a Publix receipt and staff in a costume rental store assisted capture 'killer clown' 27 decades right after she shot useless her husband's first wife Exceptional Images: Tristan Thompson expended time by using a FIFTH girl FOR MONTHS who holed up at NBA star's NYC resort while Khloe Kardashian was pregnant  PICTURED: Shamed Tristan Thompson leaves Cleveland hospital just 12 hrs after Khloe Kardashian offers beginning to like rat's daughter  Kris Jenner breaks silence soon after Khloe Kardashian offers birth to newborn Woman saying they're 'blessed' Retaining out the Kardashians? Kourtney and Kim jet from Cleveland and depart new mom Khloe and adore rat boyfriend Tristan Thompson to it, as resources say Khloe has FORGIVEN him Regardless of links to FIVE Females Hollywood Medium Tyler Henry can have warned Khloe Kardashian of cheating Tristan Thompson Kris Jenner's Pal addresses rumors she 'prepared' Tristan Thompson cheating scandal Comey reveals Trump required him to DISPROVE 'golden showers' declare just in case there was 'even a one for each cent probability' Melania considered it - and phone calls president 'untethered to truth of the matter' in bombshell book Trump 'plans to pardon' Dick Cheney's previous Main of staff Scooter Libby over ten years just after he was convicted of this content perjury Mueller prepares to end Russia probe WITHOUT interviewing Trump after president's lawyers say sit-down won't be able to occur in wake of Cohen raid Awkward throwback movie posted by Don Jr displays him encouraging his Children to Engage in basketball as his irked now-estranged wife Vanessa tries to clear up Trump DID have a love little one and it had been with his housekeeper, says ex-doorman who got $thirty,000 from Nationwide Enquirer for claim - but former employee is termed a liar by his ex Trump's Beast is just months absent!

One more hallmark of self-support, impulse Command is thought to be a critical Think about particular good results — the ability to delay quick gratification while in the assistance of the higher target.

Chua also reported that in one study of 48 Chinese immigrant mothers, the vast majority "mentioned which they consider their little ones could be 'the ideal' students, that 'educational achievement reflects effective parenting', Which if young children did not excel in school then there was 'a difficulty' and fogeys 'weren't doing their position'".

Considering that the 1960s, academics have divided parenting variations into three types, or “profiles”: permissive, authoritative, and authoritarian. Authoritative parenting—a combination of substantial responsiveness Using the exercising of electricity that’s open to negotiation—has actually been observed (in white family members) to produce better-attaining youngsters with much less symptoms of depression.

These mental health and psychiatric problems may create psychological challenges that make these youngsters sense like "failures".[50] When parents will not give coping procedures to their little ones and guide along with to handle unfavorable feelings, such loneliness may perhaps changeover into depression and suicide.[fifty one]

Tiger parenting (老虎妈妈, "tiger mother" or "tiger Mother") is often a expression which refers to the process of rigid or demanding dad and mom who thrust and stress their small children to achieve success academically by attaining higher levels of scholastic and educational achievement, using authoritarian parenting approaches thought to be typical of childrearing.[1] The expression was coined by Yale regulation professor Amy Chua in her 2011 memoir Struggle Hymn on the Tiger Mother.[2] A largely Chinese-American notion, the expression draws parallels to rigorous parenting designs ordinarily enforced all through households in East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia.[three][four][5][six][seven] Considering that the increase of Amy Chua's memoir and also the tiger mom phenomenon in the American mainstream in the early 2010s, the tiger Mother has considering that then been a caricatured figure in fashionable Chinese society and also in Overseas Chinese communities around the world.

The book is an odd combine. It appears as well simplistic to get taken seriously as an academic principle, also dry to suit into the standard Idea of a preferred ideas book. A lot in the deep uneasiness in looking through it comes not from what is claimed in regards to the 8 teams in query, but what is unsaid with regards to the numerous Other folks. If impulse Handle is really a critical marker of accomplishment, As an illustration, then You can find an noticeable and unappealing implication that other teams are simply just undisciplined.

In return for his or her expense, Chinese mom and dad really feel children owe them excellence. Western moms and dads Conversely, Will not think their kids are permanently indebted.

Several present-day Chinese households strive to inculcate the value and value of the education of their little one at a younger age. Greater training can be an overwhelmingly serious concern in Chinese Culture, where it is actually considered as amongst the fundamental cornerstones of Chinese society and daily life. Instruction is regarded that has a high priority for Chinese families as achievement in education and learning holds a cultural position as well as a necessity to further improve a single's socioeconomic posture in Chinese Modern society.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15